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The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating back to 3300 BCE in western India.
[....]" [Based on: Discover Magazine article (Could Dirt help Heal the Climate? [NP] For years archaeologists suspected the First Nations history might go way back because there had been small, individual finds, but Hurricane Earl helped reveal even more.From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country. [....]" [Based on: - [T. - 12/15/08]*Trivia: "[....] At the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka humans lived throughout the Upper Paleolithic (10th to 8th millennia BC), revealing cave paintings dating to ca. The ensuing increase in food resources made possible a spectacular growth of human population between 80 B. It also required cooperative effort, particularly after the introduction of irrigation led to the establishment of settled organized societies, at first in villages and later in towns and cities, and the development of new technologies, social systems and ideologies." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, pp.7000 BC; the Sivaliks and the Potwar (Pakistan) region also exhibit many vertebrate fossil remains and paleolithic tools. 16-17] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002] *Trivia: "If Ohio State University soil scientist Rattan Lal is right, one of the simplest solutions to climate change may be right under our feet.- Wiki Trivia - "The 9th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Neolithic period. [NP] Pottery became widespread (with independent development in Central America) and animal husbandry (pastoralism) spread to Africa and Eurasia. [....]"[....] Professor Dinesh Agrawal of Penn State University reviewed the evidence from a variety of sources and estimated the dates as follows: 1. These are the "bog bodies." The individual bog bodies show a great degree of variation in their state of preservation, from skeletons, to well-preserved complete bodies, to isolated heads and limbs.[NP] Agriculture spread throughout the Fertile Crescent and use of pottery became more widespread. - Amesbury in Wiltshire confirmed as oldest UK settlement - "A Wiltshire town has been confirmed as the longest continuous settlement in the United Kingdom. P.] Amesbury, including Stonehenge, has been continually occupied since 8820BC, experts have found. They range in date from 8,000 "Stonehenge was for a long while thought to have been built slowly - over about 1000 years between 2,100 and 1,100 BC.According to one scientist, the land on which this structure was built last stood above water more than 11,000 years ago.
In January , Indian marine scientists discovered what may be the more extensive remains of two ancient cities in the Gulf of Cambay.
[....] Suttie said they have found some material in the campsite that came from central Maine. - Human Occupation / South America - "The altiplano of Peru and Bolivia appears at first sight to be a very inhospitable land.
[NP] 'So, already we know there were some connections with central Maine as early as between 10,000 and 11,000 years,' he said. Its high mountains, windswept plains, and icy waters of Lake Titicaca make it a stark, yet beautiful landscape. ) at a base elevation of 12,600 feet above sea level, is the ancestral home to the famous Andean animals (llamas and alpacas) and plants (potatoes and quioa).
Animal husbandry made things worse, as domesticated animals began grazing grasslands down to the earth.
In places wehere the ground is bare - from overgrazing or from the common practice of leaving fields unplanted for part of the year - photosynthesis stops. Lal calculates that land use changes such as these have stripped 70 billion to 100 billion tons of carbon from the world's soils and pumped it into the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and lakes since the dawn of agriculture. - Geography Trivia / Ireland - "The shape and landscape of present-day Ireland—an island of 27,100 square miles [70,200 square kilometers]—were formed 10,000 years ago when Atlantic Ocean glaciers slowly began their retreat.
In this 7,000 year span, we see the first colonization of the altiplano, the settling of permanent villages, and the rise of chiefly societies that formed the basis of Tiwanaku, one of the high civilizations of the New World.